Heavy metal contamination due to natural and anthropogenic sources is a global environmental concern. Today indiscriminate and uncontrolled discharge of metal contaminated industrial effluents into the environment has become an issue of major concern. Heavy metals, being non-biodegradable and persistent, beyond a permissible concentration from unspecific compounds inside the cells thereby causing cellular toxicity. Release of heavy metal without proper treatment poses a significant threat to public health because of its persistence, bio magnifications and accumulation in food chain. Non-biodegradability and sludge production are the two major constraints of metal treatment. Microbial metal bioremediation is an efficient strategy due to its low cost, high efficiency and ecofriendly nature. Recent advances have been made in understanding metal-microbe interaction and their application for metal accumulation / detoxification. The availability of variety of microbial biomass and their metal binding potential makes it a economical and sustainable option for developing effluent treatment process for removal and recovery of heavy metals.